Impact of maternal human immunodeficiency virus infection on pregnancy and birth outcomes in Pune, India

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Little is known about birth outcomes for HIV-infected women in India. We examine maternal and neonatal birth outcomes in HIV-infected women within the context of enhanced pre-natal care associated with a randomized clinical trial conducted in Pune, India. Birth outcomes of 212 HIV-infected pregnant women were compared with those of 130 HIV-uninfected pregnant women attending a government tertiary care hospital between 2002 and 2004. These women and children were participating in the Six Week Extended-Dose Nevirapine (SWEN) study. Birth outcomes and maternal morbidity data were collected at delivery. We found no differences between HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women with respect to the proportion with elevated intrapartum blood pressure, eclampsia, oligohydramnios, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), preterm delivery, or caesarean section (p>0.05). HIV-infected women were more likely to have peri-partum fever (3% versus 0%, p=0.04). There were no differences in neonatal parameters such as low birth weight (LBW), infants who were small for gestational age, or those having congenital anomalies (p>0.05). Compared with infants of HIV-infected women enrolled antenatally, infants of HIV-infected women enrolled in the post-partum ward had a higher risk of pre-term delivery (20% versus 8%, p=0.02) and LBW (41% versus 22%, p=0.002). HIV-infected women in this cohort in India were not found to have significant negative birth outcomes. Antenatal care was important as those not having received any antenatal care prior to deliver were at increased risk of having a pre-term delivery or an infant with LBW. Based on these data, regular antenatal care provided to HIV-infected women can reduce risk of adverse birth outcomes for their infants.

Patil S, Bhosale R, Sambarey P, Gupte N, Suryavanshi N, Sastry J, Bollinger RC, Gupta A, Shankar A. Impact of maternal human immunodeficiency virus infection on pregnancy and birth outcomes in Pune, India. AIDS Care. 2011 Dec; 23(12):1562-9.

BJGMC, Pune, India