Research News

August 12, 2022

Dr. Shivakumar and his group discovered that a high proportion of patients classified as EPTB in India have concomitant PTB. Their results support the need for improved symptom and CXR screening, and recommends routine sputum TB microbiology screening of all Indian patients with EPTB.

Clinical Research

Leadership
Our Indo-JHU Clinical Research Partnership is located in Pune and is directed by Dr. Amita Gupta (Baltimore, MD), with onsite direction from Dr. Vidya Mave, Dr. Nishi Suryavanshi, and Dr. Nikhil Gupte (Pune). The Indo-JHU Partnership employs more than 200 people and in addition to our memberships in consortia with many esteemed Indian research institutions, we have formal agreements with:
 
 

Evaluation of Provider, Patient and Pharmacy Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding HIV Care and Use of Antiretroviral Therapy in Pune, India

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2004-03-29
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This study ended in 2007. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically affected morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected persons in industrialized countries. In India, where approximately 4.3 million persons are estimated to be HIV-infected (NACO), the use of ART has been limited because of the...

A Study to Validate New Assays for Measuring HIV Seroincidence in Indian HIV Subtype C Seroconverters

Post Date: 
2003-08-05
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This study ended in July 2006.

Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT) of HIV: India SWEN Study

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2002-06-07
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This study was officially terminated August 2018. Primary and secondary analyses of the India SWEN study, an NIH-funded phase III randomized controlled trial of an extended nevirapine prophylaxis regimen among 783 HIV-infected pregnant women and their...

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Novel interferon-gamma assays for diagnosing tuberculosis in young children in India

Post Date: 
2017-04-01
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Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Setting: The tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) are used as supportive evidence to diagnose active tuberculosis (TB). Novel IGRAs could improve diagnosis, but data are lacking in young children. Design: Children (age 5 years or...

Reducing uncertainty for acute febrile illness in resource-limited settings: the current diagnostic landscape

Post Date: 
2017-03-27
Publication: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
After decades of slow progress in diagnostics for acute febrile illness in resource-limited settings, a wave of converging advancements will enable clinicians in resource limited settings to reduce uncertainty for the diagnosis of acute febrile illness.

The epidemiology, pathogenesis, transmission, diagnosis, and management of multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant, and incurable tuberculosis

Post Date: 
2017-03-24
Publication: 
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Global tuberculosis incidence has declined marginally over the past decade, and tuberculosis remains out of control in several parts of the world including Africa and Asia. Although tuberculosis control has been effective in some regions of the world, these gains are threatened by the increasing...

High prevalence of cryptococcal antigenaemia amongst asymptomatic advanced HIV patients in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2017-03-21
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Publication: 
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Methods : A prospective study was conducted in a large public sector ART centre and the inpatient wards of Sassoon Hospital, Pune, India. All consenting patients> 18 years of age with CD4 count <100 cells/mm3 were screened for CrAg by latex agglutination assay. Those with positive CrAg...

Drug-resistant tuberculosis in 2017: at a crossroads

Post Date: 
2017-03-15
Publication: 
Lancet Respiratory Medicine
In The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Dheda and colleagues present one of the most comprehensive pictures to date of the global epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis. This comes at a time of increasing awareness of antimicrobial resistance as a global threat, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis...

Vitamin A and D deficiencies associated with incident tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in multinational case-cohort study

Post Date: 
2017-02-06
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Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Introduction: Numerous micronutrients have immunomodulatory roles that may influence risk of tuberculosis (TB), but the association between baseline micronutrient deficiencies and incident TB after antiretroviral (ART) initiation in HIV-infected individuals is not well characterized. ...

Tuberculosis associated with HIV infection

Post Date: 
2017-01-15
Publication: 
Microbiology Spectrum
Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) has recently surpassed HIV as the primary infectious disease killer worldwide, but the two diseases continue to display lethal synergy. The burden of TB is disproportionately borne by people living with HIV, particularly where HIV and poverty...

Bedaquiline

Post Date: 
2017-01-01
Publication: 
Kucers’ the Use of Antibiotics: A Clinical Review of Antibacterial, Antifungal, and Antiviral Drugs, 7th Edition
Section II, Antibiotics: Part 12 Anti-tuberculosis drugs.

Tuberculosis burden in India's private sector

Post Date: 
2016-11-15
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The Lancet Infectious Disease
Reply to author's reply

Mandatory tuberculosis case notification in high tuberculosis-incidence countries: policy and practice

Post Date: 
2016-10-20
Publication: 
European Respiratory Journal
Mandatory tuberculosis (TB) notification is an important policy under the End TB Strategy, but little is known about its enforcement especially in high TB incidence countries. We undertook a literature search for selected high-incidence countries, followed by a questionnaire-based survey...

Sex-related differences in inflammatory and immune activation markers before and after combined antiretroviral therapy initiation

Post Date: 
2016-10-01
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Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Background: Women progress to death at the same rate as men despite lower plasma HIV RNA (viral load). We investigated sex-specific differences in immune activation and inflammation as a potential explanation. Methods: Inflammatory and immune activation markers [...

Efficacy of six-week extended-dose nevirapine varies by infant birth weight with greatest relative efficacy in low birth weight infants

Post Date: 
2016-09-30
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Publication: 
PLOS One
Low birth weight (LBW), defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as birth weight less than 2500 g, is a significant public health issue in resource-limited settings, particularly in Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia where the estimated annual incidence is 14% and 28–31%, respectively,...

Continued elevation of interleukin-18 and interferon-γ after initiation of antiretroviral therapy and clinical failure in a diverse multicountry human immunodeficiency virus cohort

Post Date: 
2016-07-27
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Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Background: We assessed immune activation after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation to understand clinical failure in diverse settings. Methods: We performed a case-control study in ACTG Prospective Evaluation of Antiretrovirals in Resource-Limited Settings (...

Epidemiological impact of achieving UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets for HIV care in India: a modelling study

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2016-07-07
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BMJ Open
Objective: Recent UNAIDS ‘90-90-90’ targets propose that to end the HIV epidemic by 2030, 90% of persons living with HIV (PLWH) worldwide should know their diagnosis, 90% of diagnosed PLWH should be on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 90% of PLWH on ART should be virally suppressed by 2020...

Inflammation and change in body weight with antiretroviral therapy initiation in a multinational cohort of HIV-infected adults

Post Date: 
2016-07-01
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Publication: 
Journal of Infectious Diseases
Background: Both wasting and obesity are associated with inflammation, but the extent to which body weight changes influence inflammation during human immunodeficiency virus infection is unknown. Methods: Among a random virologically suppressed participants of the...

Quantitative IFN-y,IL-2 response and latent tuberculosis test discordance in HIV-infected pregnant women

Post Date: 
2016-06-15
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Publication: 
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Rationale: Pregnant women with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are at high risk for development of TB, especially if infected with HIV. Objectives: To assess the performance of LTBI tests in pregnant and postpartum women infected with HIV, investigate the...

Next-generation sequencing in neuropathologic diagnosis of infections of the nervous system

Post Date: 
2016-06-13
Publication: 
Neurology, Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation
OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of next-generation sequencing (NGS) microbiome approaches in the diagnosis of infectious disorders in brain or spinal cord biopsies in patients with suspected CNS infections. METHODS: In a...

Isoniazid hair concentrations in children with tuberculosis: a proof of concept study

Post Date: 
2016-06-01
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Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Assessing treatment adherence and quantifying exposure to anti-tuberculosis drugs among children is challenging. We undertook a 'proof of concept' study to assess the drug concentrations of isoniazid (INH) in hair as a therapeutic drug monitoring tool. Children aged <12 years initiated on...

The availability of emergency obstetric care in the context of the JSY cash transfer programme in Madhya Pradesh, India

Post Date: 
2016-05-18
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BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Abstract Background: Since 2005, India has implemented a national cash transfer programme, the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), which provides women a cash transfer upon giving birth in an existing public facility. This has resulted in a steep rise in facility births across the...

Applying ethical principles to international community-based research; a case study from the Consortium to Respond Effectively to the AIDS/TB Epidemic

Post Date: 
2016-05-15
This paper describes how one set of HIV-TB prevention research studies put procedures in place to be responsive to these foundational ethical principles when interacting with communities in large population-based, global public health research.

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