Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulation of Rifapentine Allow Concomitant Antiretroviral Therapy with Efavirenz and Non-Weight Based Dosing

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Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

The Brief Rifapentine–Isoniazid Efficacy for TB Prevention/A5279 trial demonstrated a 1-month daily regimen of rifapentine and isoniazid was noninferior to 9 months of isoniazid alone for preventing TB in persons living with HIV (PLWH). Our objective was to evaluate rifapentine pharmacokinetics in trial participants receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and perform simulations to compare weight-based rifapentine dosing with a standard, fixed dose. Nonlinear mixed effect modeling was used to estimate rifapentine and 25-desacetyl rifapentine population pharmacokinetic characteristics. The pharmacokinetic model was validated using a nonparametric bootstrap and visual predictive checks. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to compare weight-based and fixed dose regimens. Rifapentine and 25-desacetyl rifapentine concentrations (347 of each; 185 participants) were each described with a one-compartment model with one-way conversion between rifapentine and 25-desacetyl rifapentine. The absorption rate was nearly doubled in fed versus fasting states. Rifapentine clearance was increased 31% in those receiving efavirenz (EFV)-based versus nevirapine-based ART. Metabolite clearance was allometrically scaled with fat-free mass. Simulations showed lower rifapentine exposures with weight-based compared with fixed dosing. With 10 mg/kg weight-based regimens, 26% and 62% of simulated exposures in <35 kg and 35-45 kg weight classes were above target (AUC0 to 24 h of 257 mg*hr/L); 85% of simulated exposures across all weight classes with fixed dosing were above target. These data support fixed dosing with rifapentine 600 mg daily for TB prevention regardless of weight for PLWH 13 years or older receiving the 4-week regimen and no need for dose adjustment when given with EFV-based ART. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01404312.

Pham MM, Podany AT, Mwelase N, Supparatpinyo K, Mohapi L, Gupta A, Samaneka W, Omoz-Oarhe A, Langat D, Benson CA, Chaisson RE, Swindells S, Fletcher CV. Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulation of Rifapentine Supports Concomitant Antiretroviral Therapy with Efavirenz and Non-Weight Based Dosing. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2022 Sep 20;66(9):e0238521. doi: 10.1128/aac.02385-21. Epub 2022 Aug 9. PMID: 35943252; PMCID: PMC9487628.