High-Intensity Versus Standard Thromboprophylaxis Among Adults Hospitalized with COVID-19: A Retrospective Cohort Study

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Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis

Background and Objectives
Current clinical guidelines recommend thromboprophylaxis for adults hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19), yet it is unknown whether higher doses of thromboprophylaxis offer benefits beyond standard doses.

We studied electronic health records from 50 091 adults hospitalized with COVID‐19 in the United States between February 2020 and February 2021. We compared standard (enoxaparin 30 or 40 mg/day, fondaparinux 2.5 mg, or heparin 5000 units twice or thrice per day) versus intermediate (enoxaparin 30 or 40 mg twice daily, or up to 1.2 mg/kg of body weight daily, heparin 7500 units thrice per day or heparin 10 000 units twice or thrice per day) thromboprophylaxis. We separately examined risk of escalation to therapeutic anticoagulation, severe disease (first occurrence of high‐flow nasal cannula, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation or invasive mechanical ventilation), and death. To summarize risk, we present hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using adjusted time‐dependent Cox proportional hazards regression models.

People whose first dose was high intensity were younger, more often obese, and had greater oxygen support requirements. Intermediate dose thromboprophylaxis was associated with increased risk of therapeutic anticoagulation (HR, 3.39; 95% CI, 3.22‐3.57), severe disease (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.17‐1.28), and death (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.21‐1.55). Increased risks associated with intermediate‐dose thromboprophylaxis persisted in subgroup and sensitivity analyses varying populations and definitions of exposures, outcomes, and covariates.

Our findings do not support routine use of intermediate‐dose thromboprophylaxis to prevent clinical worsening, severe disease, or death among adults hospitalized with COVID‐19.

Andersen KM, Joseph CS, Mehta HB, Streiff MB, Betz JF, Bollinger RC Jr, Fisher AM, Gupta A, LeMaistre CF, Robinson ML, Xu Y, Ng DK, Alexander GC, Garibaldi BT. Thromboprophylaxis in people hospitalized with COVID-19: Assessing intermediate or standard doses in a retrospective cohort study. Res Pract Thromb Haemost. 2022 Jul 15;6(5):e12753. doi: 10.1002/rth2.12753. PMID: 35859579; PMCID: PMC9287673.