Bob Bollinger, MD, MPH

Role: 
Faculty
Raj and Kamla Gupta Professor of Infectious Diseases, Professor of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing

Dr. Bollinger is the Raj and Kamla Gupta Professor of Infectious Diseases at the Johns Hopkins University (JHU) School of Medicine. He holds joint appointments in International Health at the Johns Hopkins (JH) Bloomberg School of Public Health, and in Community Public Health at the JH School of Nursing.  From 2005-2022, he was the Founding Director of the JH Center for Clinical Global Health Education (now CCGHE-ID), which was the home of the Johns Hopkins Division of Infectious Diseases research program in Pune, India until the establishment of the Center for Infectious Diseases in India (CIDI).  He is Associate Director for Medicine of the JH Center for Global Health and is a member of the Faculty Steering Committee of the Johns Hopkins Gupta Klinsky India Institute.  Is a member of the faculty advisory group for the JH Precision Medicine Center of Excellence for COVID-19 and the JH Center for Innovative Diagnostics in Infectious Diseases (CDID).  He has served as a member of the US Presidential Advisory Council for HIV/AIDS (PACHA), the PACHA International Sub-committee, the Institute of Medicine Forum on Public-Private Partnerships for Global Health and Safety, and the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) Fogarty International Center Advisory Board.

Dr. Bollinger has worked for more than 40 years with partners in India on a wide range of public health, clinical research, and education programs, including projects focused on HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, leprosy, dengue, antibiotic resistant infections, COVID-19 and other emerging diseases. His research interests include identifying biological and behavioral risk factors for HIV and TB transmission; characterizing the clinical progression and treatment of HIV, TB and related infections; development/evaluation of novel point-of-care diagnostics and implementation of research projects to optimize equitable access to healthcare capacity and delivery in resource-limited communities.

In 1991, he initiated an NIH-funded Indo-US HIV research program in Pune, India, involving the National AIDS Research Institute/ICMR and the BJ Government Medical College. He has served as Principal Investigator for many NIH-supported studies and clinical trials in Pune, including the SWEN study, which led to changes in World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for treatment of infants born to HIV positive mothers to prevent mother-to-child transmission. Under his 26 years as leader of the Hopkins India Fogarty International Research Training Program, short-term and degree training was provided to more than 140 visiting Indian scientists at JHU, and in-country training provided to more than 2,000 Indian scientists. His commitment to education has been honored with the Johns Hopkins Department of Medicine David M. Levine Excellence in Mentoring Award.

Dr. Bollinger is author of more than 220 peer-reviewed research publications and 15 book chapters, including the first and largest studies of risk factors for HIV transmission in India, the cloning and sequencing of the first HIV viruses from India, the only studies characterizing the primary immune response to HIV in India, and the demonstration of increased risk of HIV acquisition with recent HSV infection and lack of circumcision. Dr. Bollinger received an undergraduate degree from Haverford College, a Doctor of Medicine from Dartmouth Medical School, and a Master of Public Health from JH Bloomberg School of Public Health. He completed his internal medicine training at the University of Maryland Medical Systems, followed by a post-doctoral fellowship in infectious diseases at JHU School of Medicine. He is board certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine in internal medicine and infectious diseases. 

The Regional Prospective Observational Research In Tuberculosis (Report) India Phase II Common Protocol

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2022-01-10
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Purpose and Scientific Aims The purpose of the RePORT India Phase II Common Protocol is to collect and utilize data and specimens for tuberculosis (TB) research, leveraging the existing infrastructure, processes, and scientific partnerships established under RePORT India consortium. The RePORT...

Innovative modelling for predicting TB treatment outcomes in global cohorts

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2021-12-19
Our overarching hypothesis is that clinical and laboratory risk factors for the adversity be treatment outcomes of failure, recurrence and mortality are heterogeneous and time-dependent. Precision medicine approaches supported by Machine learning techniques that overcome the limitations of...

Epidemiologic Factors Associated with TB Treatment Outcomes Across Report International Consortia

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2021-08-12
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Rationale: RePORT International was designed to enable cross-consortium data analysis. Now that a large number of consortium sites have completed participant enrollment in Common Protocol Cohort A, we can proceed with large-scale analysis of aligned RePORT data. The current study will harmonize and...

A Nanopore Biosensor for Leveling MTB Antigens in Blood

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2021-04-01
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Purpose of the study: The inability to obtain diagnostically useful sputum specimens, or the inability to analyze non-sputum specimens, is a significant contributor to poor diagnostic sensitivity of current TB assays, leading to the WHO to call for the development of non-sputum-based biomarker or...

Epidemiology and Clinical Outcomes of COVID-19 in India (ECO-19)

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2020-07-09
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This study was terminated May 25, 2021 This is a prospective cohort study of adults with suspected COVID-19 to address key knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of disease severity and poor clinical outcomes in India. Results from this study may help clinicians in India focus limited health resources...

Visual Field Loss in HIV-Positive Patients of Non-Infectious HIV Retinopathy

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2019-06-02
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New study will assess HIV+ patients and determine the prevalence of visual field loss due to noninfectious HIV retinopathy

Prevalence of Tuberculosis in Severely Malnourished Indian Children

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2018-12-18
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This study is funded and conducted under the U.S. National Institutes of Health, Fogarty International Center. PIs are Robert Bollinger, MD, MPH; Dr. Muralidhar Tambe, BJGMC Severely malnourished children are vulnerable population for communicable and non-communicable...

Characterization of TB-specific T Cell Responses in Highly-exposed, but Uninfected Health Care Workers in India

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2018-10-25
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This study is funded and conducted under the U.S. National Institutes of Health, Fogarty International Center. PIs are Robert Bollinger, MD, MPH; Jyothi Rengarajan, MD, Emory University. Primary Research Question Do health care workers who remain TST...

Assessing the Impact of Psychosocial Involvement in Health Care Workers with and without Active Tuberculosis at the Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Government Medical College, Pune, India

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2018-09-13
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This study was terminated effective 9/13/2021 This study is funded and conducted under the U.S. National Institutes of Health, Fogarty International Center. The overall goal is to understand the psychosocial involvement in health care workers with and...

Gut Microbiota of HIV Infected Pregnant Women

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2018-06-14
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Birth Outcomes in HIV Both antiretroviral-therapy (ART)-naïve and ART-experienced HIV-infected pregnant women have higher incidences of pre-term birth (PTB) compared to HIV-uninfected women. For example, the global prevalence of PTB is around 8%, while the rates in in HIV-infected...

Optimal Approach for TB Screening among HIV Infected Indian Children

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2018-06-11
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This study was terminated May 20, 2019. It was funded by the Fogarty International Center at the U.S. National Institutes of Health. Determining TB status (ie, uninfected, latent, and active TB disease) is more difficult among children, particularly HIV-infected children...

Assessing the Impact of the Fogarty HIV-TB Training Program at the Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Government Medical College, Pune, India

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2018-01-19
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This study was terminated in January 2021. It was funded by the Fogarty International Center at the U.S. National Institutes of Health. Johns Hopkins University was funded in 2013 to establish a new post-doctoral training program in HIV-TB epidemiology, clinical and...

Perceptions of HCWs on Barriers and Opportunities to Airborne Infection Control Guideline Implementation

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2017-12-07
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This study was terminated in December 2020 It was funded and conducted under the U.S. National Institutes of Health, Fogarty International Center. Led by Dr. Nishi Suryavanshi, this qualitative, cross-sectional study is assessing healthcare worker (HCW) perceptions about...

The Role of GeneXpert in Bacterial Diagnosis of Spinal Tuberculosis

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2017-10-26
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This study was teriminated June 19, 2019. It was funded by the Fogarty International Center at the U.S. National Institutes of Health. India has the maximum burden of tuberculosis (TB) in the world. In 2014, there were an estimated 9.6 million incident...

Zika Surveillance among Antenatal Clinic Outpatients in BJ Government Medical College and Sassoon General Hospitals, Pune, India

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2017-08-31
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This study was terminated July 21, 2020. Zika virus is a vector-borne disease carried by the mosquito Aedes aegypti . Pregnant women infected with Zika may pass the virus to the fetus, which may cause microcephaly and other severe brain defects. It is also linked to...

Risk Factors for Unfavourable Treatment Outcomes among Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in Public Sector Treatment in Pune

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2017-03-29
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This study is funded and conducted under the U.S. National Institutes of Health, Fogarty International Center. This study seeks to identify risk factors associated with unfavourable treatment outcomes (death, treatment failure, default, XDR-TB) among multidrug-resistant...

Cost-effectiveness of Xpert MTB/RIF for Diagnosing Pulmonary Tuberculosis in HIV-positive Patients

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2016-12-01
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This study was terminated October 8, 2019. This is a prospective cross-sectional study which will be conducted at BJGMC in Pune, India. The aim of this study is to see whether Xpert MTB/RIF is useful for early detection of pulmonary tuberculosis, and therefore cost-effective, as compared with...

The Evaluation of Clinical Profile and Mortality of Children Admitted with Tuberculosis in Pediatric Intensive-Care Unit at Sassoon General Hospitals, Pune

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2016-10-27
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This study was terminated October 27, 2019. Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most common causes of infection-related death globally. TB was declared global public health emergency in 1993 by World HealthOrganization (WHO). Mortality due to TB is increasing due to emergence of multidrug resistant (...

Adherence to Indian National Guidelines for Isoniazid Chemoprophylaxis among Pediatric Contacts of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases

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2016-07-06
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This study was terminated June 19, 2019. The primary objective of the study was to assess the implementation of the Indian Revised National Tuberculosis Programme's (RNTCP) guidelines regarding isoniazid preventive treatment (IPT) for children under 6 years of age who had been in contact with...

A Randomized Therapeutic Interventional Comparative Study between Three Different Modalities of Paediatric Antitubercular Treatment

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2016-06-13
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This study was terminated July 6, 2019. It was funded by the Fogarty International Center at the U.S. National Institutes of Health. This study evaluated three different TB treatment regimens in children attending Sassoon General Hospital in Pune, India. A...

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Characterising cause of death among people treated for drug-susceptible TB in India

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2023-01-12
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The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Annually, 1.5 million people die of TB.1 India has thehighest burden of TB,1 and in 2020, the case fatality ratio (CFR) among people with drug-susceptible TB was 4.3%.2 Even after treatment, mortality is more than two-fold higher among people with prior TB compared to the general population.3...

Real-World Effectiveness Of Remdesivir In Adults Hospitalized With COVID-19: A Retrospective, Multicenter Comparative Effectiveness Study

Post Date: 
2022-08-24
Publication: 
Clinical Infectious Disease
Background There is an urgent need to understand the real-world effectiveness of remdesivir in the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods This was a retrospective comparative effectiveness study. Individuals hospitalized in a large private healthcare...

Accurate Detection of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC) Using Machine Learning with Methylated DNA Biomarkers

Post Date: 
2022-08-15
Publication: 
Science Direct Gastroenterology
Esophageal cancer, with 544,076 deaths in 2020,1 includes esophageal adenocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). ESCC comprises 90% of esophageal cancers globally. The 5-year survival rate remains poor (15%–25% worldwide) because patients usually present with late disease.2...

Concomitant pulmonary disease is common among patients with extrapulmonary TB

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2022-08-12
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International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Dr. Shivakumar and his group discovered that a high proportion of patients classified as EPTB in India have concomitant PTB. Their results support the need for improved symptom and CXR screening, and recommends routine sputum TB microbiology screening of all Indian patients with EPTB.

High-Intensity Versus Standard Thromboprophylaxis Among Adults Hospitalized with COVID-19: A Retrospective Cohort Study

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2022-07-22
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Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Background and Objectives Current clinical guidelines recommend thromboprophylaxis for adults hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19), yet it is unknown whether higher doses of thromboprophylaxis offer benefits beyond standard doses. Methods We studied electronic health records from...

Impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants on inpatient clinical outcome

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2022-07-11
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Clinical Infectious Diseases
Background Prior observation has shown differences in COVID-19 hospitalization risk between SARS-CoV-2 variants, but limited information describes hospitalization outcomes. Methods Inpatients with COVID-19 at 5 hospitals in the eastern United States were included if they had hypoxia, tachypnea,...

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in an African Intensive Care Unit Setting. A prospective study of prevalence and outcomes

Post Date: 
2022-04-19
Publication: 
Annals of American Thoracic Society
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening form of respiratory failure accounting for at least 10% of global intensive care unit (ICU) admissions (1–5). The Berlin definition for diagnosing ARDS is expensive for most resource-constrained settings to apply (6–8). There are...

A Multicenter, Prospective Cohort Study of the Tuberculosis-Diabetes Interaction

Post Date: 
2022-02-15
Publication: 
Journal of Infectious Diseases
Background It is unclear whether diabetes or prediabetes affects unfavorable treatment outcomes and death in people with tuberculosis (PWTB). Methods Culture-confirmed, drug-susceptible PWTB, enrolled in the Regional Prospective Observational Research in Tuberculosis (RePORT)–Brazil cohort between...

Baseline IL-6 is a biomarker for unfavorable tuberculosis treatment outcomes: a multi-site discovery and validation study

Post Date: 
2021-11-08
Publication: 
The European Respiratory Journal
Dr. Akshay Gupte and colleagues discovered that elevated IL-6 can predict poor treatment outcomes, showcasing a need for including IL-6 in clinical screenings.

Utility of the interferon-gamma release assay for latent tuberculosis infection screening among indian health-care workers

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2021-07-13
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Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Background: The utility of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening among health-care workers (HCWs) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains unclear. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study among HCW trainees...

Drivers and barriers to workplace-based HIV self-testing among high risk men in Uganda: a qualitative study

Post Date: 
2021-05-27
Publication: 
BMC Public Health
Background Men in Sub-Saharan Africa are less engaged than women in accessing HIV testing and treatment and, consequently, experience higher HIV-related mortality. Reaching men with HIV testing services is challenging, thus, increasing the need for innovative ways to engage men with low access and...

Comparison of Time to Clinical Improvement With vs Without Remdesivir Treatment in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19

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2021-03-24
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JAMA Network Open
Just Published in JAMA Network Open: In this retrospective analysis, remdesivir was associated with faster clinical improvement of COVID-19 in a cohort of predominantly non-White patients

Unhealthy alcohol use independently associated with unfavorable TB treatment outcomes among Indian men

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2021-03-10
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International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
This study by Samyra Cox and colleagues highlights the need for integrating effective alcohol interventions into TB care.

Development of Severe COVID-19 Adaptive Risk Predictor (SCARP), a Calculator to Predict Severe Disease or Death in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19

Post Date: 
2021-03-02
Publication: 
Annals of Internal Medicine
Dr. Matt Robinson and colleagues developed a real-time tool that can predict severe disease or death among COVID patients

Higher interleukin-6 levels and changes in transforming growth factor-β are associated with lung impairment in pulmonary tuberculosis

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2021-01-18
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ERJ Open Resource
Higher levels of IL-6 and slow-to-resolve TGF-β are associated with lung impairment in treated tuberculosis. These results have important implications for clinical trials of immunomodulatory therapies to prevent tuberculosis-associated lung disease. http://openres.ersjournals.com/lookup/doi/...

Detection of genital tuberculosis among women with infertility using best clinical practices in India: An implementation study

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2021-01-15
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Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Background Diagnosis of genital tuberculosis (TB) as a cause of infertility still remains a diagnostic dilemma for clinicians, as no standard guidelines exist. The recently proposed best practices for genital TB diagnosis have not been evaluated yet in India. Objectives To implement best practices...

Higher IL-6 Levels and Changes in TGF-β are Associated with Lung Impairment in Pulmonary Tuberculosis

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2021-01-08
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ERJ
Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is associated with granuloma formation, necrosis and cavitation in lung tissue. Lung injury in PTB can persist despite microbiological cure and is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) independent of smoking exposure[1]. Furthermore, pulmonary...

Tuberculosis preventive treatment should be considered for all household contacts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in India

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2020-07-29
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PLoS One
PLoS One: Dr. Mandar Paradkar and colleagues conducted a CTRIUMPH study that supports TB preventive therapy for all household contacts of pulmonary TB patients in India

Impact of the Fogarty Training Program on Trainee and Institutional Research Capacity Building at a Government Medical College in India

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2020-07-28
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Annals of Global Health
Gauri Dumal and colleagues assess the impact of the 5-year HIV-TB research training program on building individual research capacity at BJGMC.

A mobile health-facilitated behavioral intervention for community health workers improves exclusive breastfeeding and early infant HIV diagnosis in India: A cluster randomized trial

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2020-07-03
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Journal of the International AIDS Society
When community health workers used a mobile health intervention with HIV+ women to deliver care, there was a higher uptake of exclusive breastfeeding at two months and early infant HIV diagnosis at six weeks

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Jeff Tornheim, MD, MPH

Infectious Disease Fellow
Baltimore, Maryland
Jeff Tornheim, MD, MPH, is a clinical fellow in the Division of Infectious Disease here at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. After completing undergraduate studies in International Development and Economics at Brandeis University he moved to East Africa where he engaged in health system strengthening for returning refugees to South Sudan and worked with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on the epidemiology of pneumonia and diarrhea in Western Kenya. He completed a joint MD/MPH at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, with his thesis evaluating the impact of water...

Aarti Avinash Kinikar, MD: Pediatrics

BJGMC-JHU Fogarty HIV-TB Program Trainee
Pune, India
Education: MBBS (1984); DCH (1988); MD-Paediatrics (1988), DNB-Paediatrics (2003); MRCP-UK (1995). Medical Education- Grant Medical College – Mumbai University, India.

Amit Kale, MS: Orthopedics

BJGMC-JHU Fogarty HIV-TB Program Trainee
Pune, India
I am working as associate professor in orthopedics. Currently, I am conducting various drug trials for rheumatoid arthritis.

Anita Basavaraj, MD: Gastroenterology

BJGMC-JHU Fogarty HIV-TB Program Trainee
Pune, India
Dr Anita Basavaraj has done her MBBS from Nagpur University with Honors in Surgery (1987). Thereafter she did her MD in Medicine (1990) and her Diplomat of National Board (D.N.B.) in 1992.She has done her post graduate Diploma in geriatric Medicine (P.G.D.G.M.) winning the university Gold Medal by virtue of standing first in the country (2012), which is a distant education venture run by Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU).

Geeta Shrikar Pardeshi, MD: Preventive and Social Medicine

BJGMC-JHU Fogarty HIV-TB Program Trainee
Pune, India
I have led research projects related to Reproductive and Child Health, Sanitation and Infectious diseases. As part of the BJGMC JHU Fogarty training program in HIV-TB, I have research interest in TB epidemiology. I am interested in studying the association of co-morbidities with clinical presentation and treatment outcomes in tuberculosis.

Sunita Girish, PhD: Medical Biochemistry

BJGMC-JHU Fogarty HIV-TB Program Trainee
Pune, India
Education: Ph.D, Pune University, 2005 (Medical Biochemistry) title “Antioxidant Status in Leprosy.” Overview: How to improve health systems to combat various infectious diseases like Leprosy, Tuberculosis and HIV in developing countries, is a research and policy issue that affects many aspects of public health. My research interests include further to understand molecular level changes in cystic fibrosis which is under diagnosed .My interests also involve innovations in molecular techniques dealing with infectious diseases, help governments in developing countries to improve and modify drug...

Sangita Shelke, MD: Preventive and Social Medicine; Diplomas in Nutrition, Hospital Administration, Psychological counseling

BJGMC-JHU Fogarty HIV-TB Program Trainee
Pune, India
Indeed TB is a social disease with so many social problems especially the women suffering from TB/HIV undergoes a pathetic life situation. Women are silent suffers, of both HIV and TB in male dominated society of India. My ultimate desire is if I can make a difference in the lives of these silent suffers.

Dr. Smita Deshpande: Microbiology

BJGMC-JHU Fogarty HIV-TB Program Trainee
My research interests have been: Rapid diagnostic methods for Acute pyogenic meningitis, Diagnosis of enteric fever , Role of Methicillin resistance Staph aureus in infections, Molecular diagnosis of Leptospirosis, Rapid diagnosis of MDR-TB by REMA ( Resasurine Micro titre Plate Assay)and by Line Probe Assay.

Dr. Chhaya Valvi: Pediatrics

BJGMC-JHU Fogarty HIV-TB Program Trainee
Pune, India
Dr. Chhaya Valvi has completed her undergraduate and postgraduate medical education from the premier institute of Seth G.S. Medical College, Mumbai, India. She was awarded the prestigious Dr. Palekar prize as she ranked first among the candidates for M.D. exam.

Dr. Vasudha Belgaumkar: Dermatology

BJGMC-JHU Fogarty HIV-TB Program Trainee
Pune, India
Dr.Vasudha has completed her undergraduate medical education from S.B.H. Government Medical College, Dhule,Maharashtra .A meritorious student throughout, she topped her first and final year University examinations. She is presently working as Associate Professor of Dermatology at B.J. Government Medical College, Pune. Having completed her post-graduation in Dermatology, Venereology (including HIV) and Leprology from this premier institute, she has acquired clinical skills as well as an affinity for research.

Rahul Lokhande, MD: Pulmonary Medicine

BJGMC-JHU Fogarty HIV-TB Program Trainee
Pune, India
He is Unit In charge at B J Government Medical college and Sassoon Hospital Pune . He has special Interest in Bronchoscopy and Respiratory Intensive Care Unit of Sassoon Hospital.

Dr. Shilpa Naik: Obstetrics and Gynecology

BJGMC-JHU Fogarty HIV-TB Program Trainee
Pune, India
I am working as an Associate Professor & Unit Incharge since 2009 in the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology at B.J.Govt Medical College & Sassoon General Hospitals Pune. I have been managing High Risk Obstetrics and has keen interest in Critical Care Obstetrics.

Akshay Gupte, PhD, MBBS, MSPH, PhD

Assistant Professor
Akshay Gupte
Dr. Gupte is Assistant Professor of Global Health at the Boston University School of Public Health. His research is focused on the intersection of infectious and chronic lung diseases in low- and middle-income settings. He is the PI/multi-PI of NIH funded Indo-US collaborative studies to describe the epidemiology and pathogenesis of lung impairment in tuberculosis (TB)/HIV/diabetes, measure its impact on poor clinical outcomes, and identify therapeutic and programmatic interventions to improve post-TB lung health and longevity. Dr. Gupte serves on several multi-national TB/HIV research...

Experts say COVID-19 mutations are normal

Post Date: 
2021-01-15
Dr. Robert Bollinger: “... As with any virus, changes are something to be watched, to ensure that testing and vaccines are still effective.

The Latest On Russia-Ukraine War and COVID Boosters

Post Date: 
2022-03-09
Source: 
Leslie Marshall Show
Leslie Marshall Show. Guest: Dr. Robert Bollinger
Leslie is joined by Dr. Bob Bollinger, and the two analyze new information on COVID-19 booster shots, and the latest news on the pandemic.

2 New COVID-19 Vaccines Nearing Approval: How They’re Different

Post Date: 
2022-03-03
Source: 
Healthline
building photo
The new vaccines may chip away at the number of Americans who have refused to be vaccinated up to this point, but their biggest value is likely to be global.

Health Care Trends Expected in 2022

Post Date: 
2022-01-28
Source: 
Psychiatric Times
Dr. Robert Bollinger
Dr. Bollinger: "It is important to remember that any population health effort to address SDOH must also take into account racial discrimination—in society in general as well as in health care."

COVID-19 still found a way into a fully vaccinated crowd. Will Omicron make 'breakthrough infections' worse?

Post Date: 
2021-12-08
Source: 
ABC.NET
COVID-19
"Chase Hughes (right) caught COVID-19 at his high school reunion, but former classmate Diana Blackburn Mahoney did not."

COVID Omicron Variant: What You Need to Know

Post Date: 
2021-12-06
Source: 
hopkinsmedicine.org
Dr. Robert C. Bollinger
Dr. Bollinger: “My own expectation is that being fully vaccinated, including boosters, will still provide a reduced risk of hospitalization and death."

Here's why you shouldn't be panicking about the new COVID variant, Omicron.

Post Date: 
2021-12-01
Source: 
Mamamia
“All RNA viruses mutate over time, some more than others...flu viruses change often, which is why doctors recommend that you get..."

States with High Vaccination Rates Can Still Experience COVID-19 Surges — Here’s Why

Post Date: 
2021-12-01
Source: 
Healthline
High Vaccination Rates
Dr. Robert Bollinger: “We went through the same cycle last year with different parts of the country… going up at different times,"

What Chris Rock Did Immediately After Testing Positive For COVID-19

Post Date: 
2021-09-21
Source: 
nickiswift.com
Chris Rock
Dr. Robert Bollinger: "...changes are something to be watched, to ensure that testing, treatment and vaccines are still effective."

Covid-19 variants in SA: Your questions answered

Post Date: 
2021-09-16
Source: 
The Citizen
Dr. Robert Bollinger
Dr. Bollnger: “All RNA viruses mutate over time, some more than others, which is why doctors recommend that you get a new flu vaccine every year,."

Will I need to get a COVID-19 booster shot before my next trip?

Post Date: 
2021-08-23
Source: 
Lonely Planet
Booster Shot
If this trend continues, it's possible that travelers will need to stay up-to-date with their vaccines before planning any international trips.

Best COVID face masks for kids? New guidance about disposable, KN95 and more

Post Date: 
2021-08-20
Source: 
c/net
Best COVID face masks for kids
"A good quality disposable mask under a cloth mask is a reasonable alternative, as long as the fit on the face, nose and mouth is tight."

Expert Analysis on COVID Delta Variant and Afghanistan Withdrawal

Post Date: 
2021-08-17
Source: 
Leslie Marshall Show, with Brad Bannnon
The Leslie Marshall Show
The Leslie Marshall Show, with Brad Bannon. Dr. Bob Bollinger joined the first half of the show to discuss the COVID Delta variant.

Should Immunocompromised People Get Booster Shots? What the Experts Say

Post Date: 
2021-08-11
Source: 
Healthline
Booster Shot
Due to a weakened immune system, immunocompromised patients are at higher risk of serious illness from many infectious diseases.

Schools weigh vaccine and mask mandates as students prepare to return

Post Date: 
2021-08-09
Source: 
CNBC
Schools weigh vaccine and mask mandates
Dr. Robert Bollinger: ″We’ve had mandates for vaccinations in schools for over 100 years. Vaccine mandates are nothing new.”

Here’s where return-to-office plans stand now

Post Date: 
2021-08-04
Source: 
CNBC
return-to-office plans
Dr. Bob Bollinger: "This is an unprecedented, once-in-a-century public health emergency, and things are, unfortunately, in flux.”

COVID vaccination rate for NYC municipal workforce lags behind city’s total as thousands scoff at shots

Post Date: 
2021-07-29
Source: 
New York Daily News
COVID vaccination rate
Dr. Bob Bollinger was interviewed for this article

COVID-19 Variants and Vaccine Mandates

Post Date: 
2021-07-29
Source: 
YouTube
Dr. Robert Bollinger
Leslie Marshall is joined by Dr. Bob Bollinger, the Raj and Kamla Gupta Professor of Infectious Diseases at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

Indonesia: Raging pandemic offers fertile ground for new variants

Post Date: 
2021-07-23
Source: 
Al Jazeera
New Variants
Al Jazeera: Dr. Robert Bollinger weighs in on the potential for new COVID-19 variants, particularly in areas where case numbers are high.

How we solved COVID

Post Date: 
2021-07-13
Source: 
Readers digest
Dr. Robert Bollinger
Dr. Robert Bollinger: "Such fast development of tests and vaccines are a clear example of the collaboration between scientists and the importance of public investment."

Are COVID-19 symptoms different if I’m infected with the Delta variant?

Post Date: 
2021-07-13
Source: 
Los Angeles Times
Dr. Robert Bollinger
Dr. Bollinger: "People getting infected now are a lot younger than they were with the earlier variants, because the older people are vaccinated at a much higher rate."

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