Concomitant pulmonary disease is common among patients with extrapulmonary TB

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International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease

BACKGROUND: Microbiologic screening of extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) patients could inform recommendations for aerosol precautions and close contact prophylaxis. However, this is currently not routinely recommended in India. Therefore, we estimated the proportion of Indian patients with EPTB with microbiologic evidence of pulmonary TB (PTB).

METHODS: We characterized baseline clinical, radiological and sputum microbiologic data of 885 adult and pediatric TB patients in Chennai and Pune, India, between March 2014 and November 2018.

RESULTS: Of 277 patients with EPTB, enhanced screening led to the identification of 124 (45%) with concomitant PTB, including 53 (19%) who reported a cough >2 weeks; 158 (63%) had an abnormal CXR and 51 (19%) had a positive sputum for TB. Of 70 participants with a normal CXR and without any cough, 14 (20%) had a positive sputum for TB. Overall, the incremental yield of enhanced screening of patients with EPTB to identify concomitant PTB disease was 14% (95% CI 12-16).

CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of patients classified as EPTB in India have concomitant PTB. Our results support the need for improved symptom and CXR screening, and recommends routine sputum TB microbiology screening of all Indian patients with EPTB.

Shivakumar SVBY, Padmapriyadarsini C, Chavan A, Paradkar M, Shrinivasa BM, Gupte A, Dhanasekaran K, Thomas B, Suryavanshi N, Dolla CK, Selvaraju S, Kinikar A, Gaikwad S, Kohli R, Sivaramakrishnan GN, Pradhan N, Hanna LE, Kulkarni V, DeLuca A, Cox SR, Murali L, Thiruvengadam K, Raskar S, Ramachandran G, Golub JE, Gupte N, Mave V, Swaminathan S, Gupta A, Bollinger RC. Concomitant pulmonary disease is common among patients with extrapulmonary TB. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2022 Apr 1;26(4):341-347. doi: 10.5588/ijtld.21.0501. PMID: 35351239; PMCID: PMC8982647.