Bob Bollinger, MD, MPH

Role: 
Faculty
Raj and Kamla Gupta Professor of Infectious Diseases, Professor of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing

Dr. Bollinger is the Raj and Kamla Gupta Professor of Infectious Diseases at the Johns Hopkins University (JHU) School of Medicine. He holds joint appointments in International Health at the Johns Hopkins (JH) Bloomberg School of Public Health, and in Community Public Health at the JH School of Nursing.  From 2005-2022, he was the Founding Director of the JH Center for Clinical Global Health Education (now CCGHE-ID), which was the home of the Johns Hopkins Division of Infectious Diseases research program in Pune, India until the establishment of the Center for Infectious Diseases in India (CIDI).  He is Associate Director for Medicine of the JH Center for Global Health and is a member of the Faculty Steering Committee of the Johns Hopkins Gupta Klinsky India Institute.  Is a member of the faculty advisory group for the JH Precision Medicine Center of Excellence for COVID-19 and the JH Center for Innovative Diagnostics in Infectious Diseases (CDID).  He has served as a member of the US Presidential Advisory Council for HIV/AIDS (PACHA), the PACHA International Sub-committee, the Institute of Medicine Forum on Public-Private Partnerships for Global Health and Safety, and the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) Fogarty International Center Advisory Board.

Dr. Bollinger has worked for more than 40 years with partners in India on a wide range of public health, clinical research, and education programs, including projects focused on HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, leprosy, dengue, antibiotic resistant infections, COVID-19 and other emerging diseases. His research interests include identifying biological and behavioral risk factors for HIV and TB transmission; characterizing the clinical progression and treatment of HIV, TB and related infections; development/evaluation of novel point-of-care diagnostics and implementation of research projects to optimize equitable access to healthcare capacity and delivery in resource-limited communities.

In 1991, he initiated an NIH-funded Indo-US HIV research program in Pune, India, involving the National AIDS Research Institute/ICMR and the BJ Government Medical College. He has served as Principal Investigator for many NIH-supported studies and clinical trials in Pune, including the SWEN study, which led to changes in World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for treatment of infants born to HIV positive mothers to prevent mother-to-child transmission. Under his 26 years as leader of the Hopkins India Fogarty International Research Training Program, short-term and degree training was provided to more than 140 visiting Indian scientists at JHU, and in-country training provided to more than 2,000 Indian scientists. His commitment to education has been honored with the Johns Hopkins Department of Medicine David M. Levine Excellence in Mentoring Award.

Dr. Bollinger is author of more than 220 peer-reviewed research publications and 15 book chapters, including the first and largest studies of risk factors for HIV transmission in India, the cloning and sequencing of the first HIV viruses from India, the only studies characterizing the primary immune response to HIV in India, and the demonstration of increased risk of HIV acquisition with recent HSV infection and lack of circumcision. Dr. Bollinger received an undergraduate degree from Haverford College, a Doctor of Medicine from Dartmouth Medical School, and a Master of Public Health from JH Bloomberg School of Public Health. He completed his internal medicine training at the University of Maryland Medical Systems, followed by a post-doctoral fellowship in infectious diseases at JHU School of Medicine. He is board certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine in internal medicine and infectious diseases. 

Predictors of retention among men attending STI clinics in HIV prevention programs and research: A case control study in Pune, India

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2011-03-11
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PLOS One
Background: Retention is critical in HIV prevention programs and clinical research. We studied retention in the three modeled scenarios of primary prevention programs, cohort studies and clinical trials to identify predictors of retention. Methodology/Principal Findings: Men attending Sexually...

Maternal tuberculosis: a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus

Post Date: 
2011-02-01
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The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Background: Maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA load, CD4 cell count, breast-feeding, antiretroviral use, and malaria are well-established factors associated with mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV; the role of maternal tuberculosis (TB), however, has not been well...

Stigmatizing attitudes and low levels of knowledge but high willingness to participate in HIV management: A community based survey of pharmacies in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2010-08-27
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BMC Public Health
Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the role of pharmacists in low-income settings be expanded to address the increasing complexity of HIV antiretroviral (ARV) and co-infection drug regimens. However, in many such settings including in India, many pharmacists and...

Physician estimate of antiretroviral adherence: poor correlation with patient self-report and viral load

Post Date: 
2010-03-15
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AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is critical in maintaining viral suppression and minimizing resistance in HIV-infected patients. We compared physician estimates of their patients' ART adherence with participant's self-reported adherence to determine patient-provider agreement and identify...

Extended-dose nevirapine to 6 weeks of age for infants to prevent HIV transmission via breastfeeding in Ethiopia, India, and Uganda: an analysis of three randomized controlled trials

Post Date: 
2009-07-26
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The Lancet
Background: UNICEF/WHO recommends that infants born to HIV-infected mothers who do not have access to acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable, and safe replacement feeding should be exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months. The aim of three trials in Ethiopia, India, and Uganda was...

Strategies for gender-equitable HIV services in rural India

Post Date: 
2009-05-15
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Health Policy and Planning
The emergence of HIV in rural India has the potential to heighten gender inequity in a context where women already suffer significant health disparities. Recent Indian health policies provide new opportunities to identify and implement gender-equitable rural HIV services. In this review, we...

Highly complex neutralization determinants on a monophyletic lineage of newly transmitted subtype C HIV-1 Env clones from India

Post Date: 
2009-03-15
Publication: 
Virology
Little is known about the neutralization properties of HIV-1 in India to optimally design and test vaccines. For this reason, a functional Env clone was obtained from each of ten newly acquired, heterosexually transmitted HIV-1 infections in Pune, Maharashtra. These clones formed a...

Nevirapine resistance and breast-milk HIV transmission: effects of single and extended-dose nevirapine prophylaxis in subtype C HIV-infected infants

Post Date: 
2009-01-01
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PLOS One
Background: Daily nevirapine (NVP) prophylaxis to HIV-exposed infants significantly reduces breast-milk HIV transmission. We assessed NVP-resistance in Indian infants enrolled in the “six-week extended-dose nevirapine” (SWEN) trial who received single-dose NVP (SD-NVP) or SWEN for prevention...

Neutralizing antibody responses in recent seroconverters with HIV-1 subtype C infections in India

Post Date: 
2008-10-25
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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
The longitudinal heterologous neutralization response against two HIV-1 subtype C isolates was studied in 33 ART-naive individuals recently infected with HIV-1 subtype C from India. Seven of 33 (21%) seroconverters demonstrated a consistent response against both isolates (65-100%...

High risk for occupational exposure to HIV and utilization of post-exposure prophylaxis in a teaching hospital in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2008-10-21
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BMC Infectious Diseases
Background: The risk for occupational exposure to HIV has been well characterized in the developed world, but limited information is available about this transmission risk in resource-constrained settings facing the largest burden of HIV infection. In addition, the feasibility and utilization of...

Repeated pregnancy in HIV positive Indian women with known HIV status

Post Date: 
2008-09-29
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AIDS Care
HIV-positive women of reproductive age face challenges in decision making related to pregnancy. Understanding factors influencing repeat pregnancies in women with known HIV status are necessary to guide interventions and counseling strategies to better inform and support them. We compared...

The Indian pediatric HIV epidemic: a systematic review

Post Date: 
2008-09-15
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Current HIV Research
Despite an estimated 70,000 Indian children living with HIV infection, little is known about India's pediatric HIV epidemic. Generalizations about epidemiology, natural history, and treatment outcomes from other resource-limited settings (RLS) may be inaccurate for several biologic and social...

Incidence of common opportunistic infections in HIV-infected individuals in Pune, India: analysis by stages of immunosuppression represented by CD4 counts

Post Date: 
2008-07-02
Publication: 
International Journal of Infectious Diseases
Background: Opportunistic infections (OIs) influence the morbidity and mortality due to HIV infections. Data from India on the incidence of OIs among HIV-infected individuals by stages of immunodeficiency are scarce. Methods: Between September 2002 and...

Low utilization of HIV testing during pregnancy: what are the barriers to HIV testing for women in rural India?

Post Date: 
2008-02-01
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Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Introduction: Sixty percent of India's HIV cases occur in rural residents. Despite government policy to expand antenatal HIV screening and prevention of maternal-to-child transmission (PMTCT), little is known about HIV testing among rural women during pregnancy. ...

Modeling maternal infant HIV transmission in the presence of breast-feeding with an imperfect test

Post Date: 
2007-12-15
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Biometrics
An important public health question is to determine the probabilities of perinatal HIV transmission and when it occurs, whether antepartum, intrapartum, or postpartum through breastfeeding. However, this is a difficult problem because the presence of HIV infection in an infant can only be...

Nurses’ health education program in India increases HIV knowledge and reduces fear

Post Date: 
2007-11-30
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Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care
Few health care facilities are adequately prepared to manage and care for HIV/AIDS patients in India. Nurses play a critical role in patient care but are often ill-equipped to deal with their own fears of occupational risk and handle the clinical aspects of HIV/AIDS care, leading to stigma and...

Low sensitivity of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker to identify antepartum and postpartum Indian women who require antiretroviral therapy

Post Date: 
2007-11-01
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Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Background: Some studies support the use of total lymphocyte count (TLC) as a surrogate marker for CD4 cell count to guide antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. However, most of these studies have focused on nonpregnant adults. In light of expanding ART access through prevention of mother-...

Mother-to-child transmission of HIV among women who chose not to exclusively breastfeed their infants in Pune, India

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2007-08-15
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Indian Journal of Medical Research
Background and Objective: The percentage of HIV cases attributed to mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) has increased several fold in recent years. No reports are available on HIV MTCT rates among HIV-infected choosing not be exclusively breastfeed their infants in India. We examined HIV MTCT...

Declining HIV Incidence among patients attending sexually transmitted infection clinics in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2007-08-15
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Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Objective: A recent report suggesting declining HIV transmission rates in southern India has been based on HIV seroprevalence data to estimate HIV incidence. We analyzed HIV incidence rates among 3 cohorts (male, female non-sex worker, female sex worker [FSW]) presenting to sexually...

Declining HIV infection rates among recently married, pregnant women in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2007-08-15
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Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Background: A single recent study has suggested a decrease in HIV risk for women attending antenatal clinics (ANCs) in southern India. Yet, some have questioned the validity of the Indian national surveillance data and analyses. Previous studies suggest that the only major HIV risk factor for...

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WHO sets disease priorities for 2018; Tuberculosis once again not included

Post Date: 
2018-02-15
Source: 
Contagion Live: Infectious Diseases Today
CCGHE Director Bob Bollinger weighs in on WHO's priority pathogens for 2018.

Uniting for a Healthier India

Post Date: 
2018-02-14
"The Indo-US clinical research & education partnership started with a single NIH grant to study maternal-infant HIV transmission." Now with 76 studies underway, this short film chronicles the history & impact of our work in India.

In-Depth: How digital health technologies can help the United States address the opioid epidemic

Post Date: 
2018-01-05
Source: 
MobiHealthNews
Bob Bollinger interviewed about utility of mobile health in keeping patients connected to care.

Upstarts: A Better Blood Test?

Post Date: 
2017-12-15
Source: 
JHU Engineering Impact
The miLAB handheld diagnostic project led by Dr. Bob Bollinger is the feature of this report.

Celebrating Johns Hopkins Medicine's impact in India

Post Date: 
2017-12-13
Source: 
The Campaign for Johns Hopkins Medicine
In 4 years, the CCGHE has tripled its capacity for conducting research on grave health threats, thanks to strong philanthropic support.

4 ways that telemedicine can address the opioid crisis

Post Date: 
2017-12-01
Source: 
The Hill
CCGHE Director Dr. Bob Bollinger describes the utility of telemedicine in this opinion article in The Hill.

Technology could help opioid addicts in rural America, but a federal rule needs changing

Post Date: 
2017-11-08
Source: 
McClatchy News
CCGHE's Dr. Bob Bollinger discusses the utility of emocha in treating patients in remote areas.

Tech designed for Africa helps US fight disease, save money

Post Date: 
2017-10-12
Source: 
Global Health Matters
Dr. Bob Bollinger talks with the NIH Fogarty Center about development of the emocha mobile health platform.

Bollinger tapped for Fogarty International Center Advisory Board

Post Date: 
2017-10-12
Source: 
Global Health Matters
CCGHE Director joins the Fogarty International Advisory Board, which provides strategic guidance on policies and programs

Fogarty International Center, a linchpin of global health research

Post Date: 
2017-05-17
Source: 
JAMA
Bob Bollinger weighs in on NIH’s Fogarty Program & the strategic benefits the program offers for US disease surveillance.

2017 Directors' Statement

Post Date: 
2017-01-31
A New Decade of Global Health Impact The CCGHE recently marked its 10-year anniversary, and it’s an occasion that affords an opportunity to reflect on the progress we’ve made so far, and envision what lies ahead. We are encouraged by the changes we’ve seen in health outcomes for...

Public-private partnerships critical in fight against infectious diseases

Post Date: 
2016-08-17
Source: 
Infectious Disease News (via Healio)
The threat of infectious diseases continues to drive innovation in the free market, resulting in improved or novel therapies and diagnostics. Among its benefits, the free market is a place where readily available resources can be used to tackle emerging threats. One example is the number of...

Imec’s miDiagnostics joint venture does blood tests from blood-drop

Post Date: 
2016-08-09
Source: 
Electronics Weekly
miDiagnostics, the joint venture between Imec and Johns Hopkins University, aims to develop IC-based diagnostic tests which use drops of blood to detect cells, proteins, nucleic acids, and/or small molecules.

Help on wheels to screen TB in rural areas

Post Date: 
2016-07-26
Source: 
The Times of India
A state-of the art health services bus would provide medical care to rural populace at their doorsteps. Designed through a donation of US$100,000 from philanthropists Raj and Bharati Shah of the US-based Capital Technology Information Services (CTIS), the...

Mobile Health and Wellness Clinic Debuts in Pune for Clinical Research and Community-Based Care

Post Date: 
2016-07-25
The Maryland-based health care informatics company CTIS and its founders, Raj and Bharti Shah, have collaborated with the Johns Hopkins Center for Clinical Global Health Education and Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Government Medical College to equip and dispatch a custom-designed mobile health care...

Advancing Global TB Research through RePORT

Post Date: 
2016-02-29
Regional Prospective Observational Research for Tuberculosis (RePORT) International is a large, international tuberculosis research effort being undertaken by 4 regional consortia: RePORT Brazil, RePORT South Africa, RePORT Indonesia, and RePORT India. While each region collects and maintains...

Now, docs to get TB leave as cases mount

Post Date: 
2016-02-24
Source: 
Pune Mirror
Too many cases of tuberculosis (TB) among medical trainees and resident doctors in the state have prompted the medical education department to sanction medical leaves exclusively for the malady. This is the first time any state has taken such a step in India. Unusual working hours; close...

Joint Pledge of More than $5 Million to Support Health Research and Education in India

Post Date: 
2014-11-18
Source: 
The Campaign for Johns Hopkins
Gifts from the Ujala and Wyncote Foundations will create professorships and named scholars at the Center for Clinical Global Health Education For more than two decades, the Center for Clinical Global Health Education (CCGHE) at Johns Hopkins Medicine has...

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