Research News

November 22, 2022

To determine the mechanisms that mediate resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infection in household contacts (HHCs) of patients with tuberculosis (TB), we followed 452 latent TB infection-negative (LTBI-) HHCs for 2 years.

Clinical Research

Leadership
Our Indo-JHU Clinical Research Partnership is located in Pune and is directed by Dr. Amita Gupta (Baltimore, MD), with onsite direction from Dr. Vidya Mave, Dr. Nishi Suryavanshi, and Dr. Nikhil Gupte (Pune). The Indo-JHU Partnership employs more than 200 people and in addition to our memberships in consortia with many esteemed Indian research institutions, we have formal agreements with:
 
 

Determination of a reference interval in a population

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2012-02-01
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National Medical Journal of India
The reference interval is the most widely used medical decision-making tool that separates healthy from diseased individuals. We briefly discuss the methods used to determine reference interval and its limitations.

Global health education for medical students: New learning opportunities and strategies

Post Date: 
2012-01-17
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Publication: 
Medical Teacher
Background: A new course was offered to introduce basic global health concepts to all first year Johns Hopkins medical students, that took advantage of new distance learning capacity to connect medical students in Baltimore with students and faculty in Uganda, Ethiopia, Pakistan and India...

Sexually transmitted infections and risk behaviors among transgender persons (Hijras) of Pune, India

Post Date: 
2012-01-15
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Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Background: The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to determine the prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) in Hijras (self-identified transgenders of South Asia), study associated risk factors, and compare the prevalence with that in heterosexual men and men...

Nutrition and disease progression pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and post-HAART: Can good nutrition delay time to HAART and affect response to HAART

Post Date: 
2011-12-15
Publication: 
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Several studies have investigated a variety of nutritional supplementation interventions in adults with HIV. In this narrative review, we summarize the evidence from 31 clinical trials that explore clinical benefits of macronutrient and micronutrient supplementation in this population while...

Early mortality in adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC): a systematic review and meta-analysis

Post Date: 
2011-12-15
Publication: 
PLOS One
Background: We systematically reviewed observational studies of early mortality post-antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) in Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, as defined by the World Bank, to summarize what is known. ...

Impact of maternal human immunodeficiency virus infection on pregnancy and birth outcomes in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2011-12-15
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AIDS Care
Little is known about birth outcomes for HIV-infected women in India. We examine maternal and neonatal birth outcomes in HIV-infected women within the context of enhanced pre-natal care associated with a randomized clinical trial conducted in Pune, India. Birth outcomes of 212 HIV-infected...

Symptom screening among HIV-infected pregnant women is acceptable and has high negative predictive value for active tuberculosis

Post Date: 
2011-11-15
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Clinical Infectious Diseases
Symptom screening is a recommended component of intensified case-finding (ICF) for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-infected individuals. Symptomatic individuals are further investigated to either exclude or diagnose pulmonary TB, thus reducing the number of individuals requiring costly...

Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy

Publication: 
New England Journal of Medicine
Background: Antiretroviral therapy that reduces viral replication could limit the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in serodiscordant couples. Methods: In nine countries, we enrolled 1763 couples in which one partner was HIV-1–positive and the other was HIV-1–negative; 54...

High rates of all-cause and gastroenteritis-related hospitalization morbidity and mortality among HIV-exposed Indian infants

Post Date: 
2011-07-15
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BMC Infectious Diseases
Background: HIV-infected and HIV-exposed, uninfected infants experience a high burden of infectious morbidity and mortality. Hospitalization is an important metric for morbidity and is associated with high mortality, yet, little is known about rates and causes of hospitalization among these...

A comparison of online versus on-site training in health research methodology: A randomized study

Post Date: 
2011-06-17
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BMC Medical Education
Background: Distance learning may be useful for building health research capacity. However, evidence that it can improve knowledge and skills in health research, particularly in resource-poor settings, is limited. We compared the impact and acceptability of teaching two distinct content areas...

Building a global health education network for clinical care and research: the benefits and challenges of distance learning tools

Post Date: 
2011-06-15
Publication: 
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
Expanding the capacity for clinical care and health research is a global priority and a global challenge. In disenfranchised communities facing the largest burden of disease, whether they be in rural Africa or in urban US, there is a great need for more well-trained, competent and dedicated health...

QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children with household tuberculosis contact

Post Date: 
2011-05-05
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Setting : Improved strategies are needed for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children in TB-endemic settings. Objective : To determine the prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection by tuberculin skin testing (TST) and by the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (...

Mortality in HIV infected individuals in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2011-04-15
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Indian Journal of Medical Research
Background & Objectives: With the presence of HIV epidemic for more than two decades in India, rise in the number of HIV related deaths is expected. Data on mortality in HIV infected individuals from prospective studies are scanty in India. We report here data on mortality in a...

Twelve month follow-up of the SWEN randomized controlled trials: Differential impact of extended-dose nevirapine on mother-to-child transmission and infant death by maternal CD4 cell count

Post Date: 
2011-03-27
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AIDS Care
Objectives: We previously reported combined analysis of 6-week and 6-month endpoints of three randomized controlled trials [Six Week Extended Dose Nevirapine (SWEN) trials] that compared extended-dose nevirapine through 6 weeks of age to single-dose nevirapine to prevent HIV transmission via...

Predictors of retention among men attending STI clinics in HIV prevention programs and research: A case control study in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2011-03-11
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PLOS One
Background: Retention is critical in HIV prevention programs and clinical research. We studied retention in the three modeled scenarios of primary prevention programs, cohort studies and clinical trials to identify predictors of retention. Methodology/Principal Findings: Men attending Sexually...

Maternal tuberculosis: a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus

Post Date: 
2011-02-01
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The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Background: Maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA load, CD4 cell count, breast-feeding, antiretroviral use, and malaria are well-established factors associated with mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV; the role of maternal tuberculosis (TB), however, has not been well...

Public private partnerships for emergency obstetric care: lessons from Maharashtra

Post Date: 
2011-01-15
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Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Abstract Background: The National Rural Health Mission of India advocates public private partnerships (PPPs) to meet its "service guarantee" of Emergency obstetric care (EmOC) provision. The Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) has a provision of Rs. 1500 for contracting in...

Tuberculosis in women and children

Post Date: 
2010-12-15
Publication: 
The Lancet
Apart from improvement of tuberculosis control, innovative strategies to advance tuberculosis prevention and treatment in women and children would contribute to the attainment of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 by reduction of the mortality rate in young children and women of...

Stigmatizing attitudes and low levels of knowledge but high willingness to participate in HIV management: A community based survey of pharmacies in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2010-08-27
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BMC Public Health
Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the role of pharmacists in low-income settings be expanded to address the increasing complexity of HIV antiretroviral (ARV) and co-infection drug regimens. However, in many such settings including in India, many pharmacists and...

Quantitative analysis of a urine-based assay for lipoarabinomannan in patients with tuberculosis

Post Date: 
2010-08-15
Publication: 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Abstract Urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM) detection is a promising approach for rapid diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB). In microbiologically confirmed TB patients, quantitative LAM detection results increased progressively with bacillary burden and immunosuppression. Patients with...

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